Minggu, 07 April 2013
contoh proposal bahasa inggris//__ “The Use of Film (Finding Nemo) as the Media in Teaching Narrative Text To Increase Students’ Writing Ability at MAN 1 Lampahan”.
A. Background of Study We use English everyday but we don’t know it. May be we do not speak English with our parent or our friends but we always read in the books, magazine, papers, movies and etc. every day. So learning English is very important to know far increasing our world. In English there are four language skills, they are listening, speaking, reading and writing. The students must master the four of language skills so they can use English actively and also passively. Writing as a part of the language skills besides listening, speaking and reading, must be taught maximally by the teacher to the student. Writing is a process of transferring the ideas or imagination in the written form and students are claimed to be able to think and express their ideas. Writing is also as one subject that very important to learn by students and with writing student can express their ideas and student have tools to use for all of their writing purpose. Writing is also one media of communication.Writing is a primary means of recording speech, even though it must be acknowledged as a secondary medium of communication, so that the writer can conclude that writing is very important as one media of communication, that can help us to have a good socialization, can express our idea, feeling, and our opinion so that we can have a good interaction with our society. We can see the importance of writing in daily life and also in our social life, like in education and business aspect, for example when we write letter or application letter. Writing also gives some other benefits. Besides being means of communication, writing can also create jobs. In beginning writing, it is just an activity to express our idea, opinion, or feeling in the text. Writing can also be a hobby to spend our time, but finally in this modern life, people can get money from doing their writing, for example a journalist, novelist or scrip writer. Although, writing is very important for us, it is a difficult subject especially for the student. Writing skills are considered as the most difficult language skill involves the ability or mastery for grammar, vocabulary, and spelling. Another, the necessary skills and logical thinking or formulate words into meaningful sentences. Than, a coherent sentence structure and content of the obvious, punctuation also important in the English language. Besides that reason, there is another factor that makes writing be the most difficult subject. The other reason is that there are a lot of many kinds of texts in English, such as narrative, descriptive, recount, spoof and many more. Each text has different characteristics. There are generic social function, structure and lexicogrammatical features. Usually the student can differentiate each text from another and they mix all kinds of texts. This will be a challenge for the teacher to find out how the student can distinguish each kind of text from another. This paper the writing that writer want to emphasize is narrative writing because the tense that commonly used is simple past tense and its pattern is not difficult to remember by student. The other reason is because the students usually write about their selves even their experience or sharing the feeling which was felt by them in one event. To make it easy in teaching the media that is used to help writing process is internet. The facility that is used is blog because when the students put their writing in a blog it is meant the other people can give comments directly including teacher or their friends, so they can know about the lack and surplus of their writing. From those comment the students are hoped to improve their writing more and more because the application is very important beside some theories. In teaching a language, English particularly is very complicated. In the classroom, we will face dozens of technique applied to the students’ under the expectation that they are able to or easy to understand the lesson. As a teacher, it is necessary to find new teaching media to overcome the problems and not to forget to motivate the students. Some teachers have used games, pictures, songs, real object, cartoon and movie as their teaching media to grow the student creativity in learning process. There are many media can be used to improve students’ writing like audio aid, audio-visual aid and etc. Example for audio aid is radio, music, and so on while example of audio-visual aid is video, film/movie, and television, etc. In this study, film is chosen as a media for teaching writing especially in narrative text. Animation film is one of the audio-visual aid. Film, also called a movie, is a series of still or moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects. Using English animation film can be very interesting for the students. Animation film can be an excellent media to use because from the writer view that there are many students interested in movies because they watch movies as an entertainment. They can learn about language style, culture, and also the native speaker’s expression. So they can improve their English vocabulary more easily. The writer interested in conducting a research under title “The Use of Film (Finding Nemo) as the Media in Teaching Narrative Text To Increase Students’ Writing Ability at MAN 1 Lampahan”. B. Problem of Study Based on the explanation above, as the main problem of study in this proposal are: 1. Does through Film (Finding Nemo) can increase students ability in writing narrative text at MAN 1 Lampahan? 2. How to increase students ability in writing narrative text through Film (Finding Nemo) at MAN 1 Lampahan? C. Purpose of Study To complete the problem of study above,the writer give the purpose of study are: 1. To know through Film (Finding Nemo) can increase students ability in writing narrative text at MAN 1 Lampahan. 2. To describe students ability in writing narrative text can increase through Film (Finding Nemo) at MAN 1 Lampahan. D. Significance of Study Basically,this proposal has benefits,the expected benefits of the study both theoritical and practical are: 1. For the teachers The research findings are expected to be used as a consideration in teaching writing in the classroom. 2. For the students It may motivate students to improve their interest English since they will find out that writing, not always difficult to learn. E.Postulate and Hypothesis 1.Postulate Postulate is influence for validity and reality of theory and research to improve. Postulate is the logic in the research and in this proposal is take song to increase students’ ability in writing narrative text. 2.Hypothesis Hypothesis is the answer of problem will finishing by research,based on the logic to find out the true answer or true statement. In this proposal the writer take two hypothesis,such as: Ho: Film (Finding Nemo) can not influential to students in writing ability Ha: That with through Film (Finding Nemo) can improve students ability in writing. F.Terminology There are some terms found on the topic and the definition put in order to avoid misunderstanding of it. Those terms as follow: 1. Film Film is a series of images that are projected into a screen to create the illusion of motion. Furthermore, motion pictures are also called movies, film or cinema, are one of the most popular forms of entertainment, that have people to immerse themselves in an imaginary world for a short period of time. A film is one of the visual aids that can be used in a writing class. It makes lessons more fun. It can also be used to create situation for writing classes more clearly, that the students have big enthusiasm in teaching learning process in writing class. 2. Media in Teaching Media come from the word medium. It means all of them and the channel used to inform of message. In the field of education media can be called as instrument, method and technique used to communicate and influence effectively between the teacher and the students in the teaching and learning process in the school . In this study, I use Cartoon Film as media of Teaching writing. In teaching writing narrative text, teachers should not give it separately, word by word. It will make the students know the meaning of the words only and they still find difficulties in applying the word into sentences or paragraph. 3. Narrative Text Narrative text is tells a story to make a point. It can be used in an anecdotal, abbreviated way to introduce or illustrate a complicated subject or in an extended way to provide a detailed, personal account of “what happenened.” An affective narrative has a plot – a meaningful and dramatic sequence of action, which may or may not follow the order in which events actually of action. 4. Writing Ability Writing is the expression of ideas, the conveying of message to the reader, so the ideas should arguably be seen as the most important aspect of the writing. writing is used to generate ideas to express some ideas from a topic, and then become an essay complete and ready to read. Writing is an effective thing to do if we want to mastery English. G. Review of Related Literature 1. Mardiati, NPM: 06 0204 2561. Title of thesis “Using Chain Card Game to Increase Students Ability in English Writing”(An action research at SMPN 5 Takengon), the purpose in this thesis is to know the effectiveness of using chain card game increase student’s ability in English writing and to find out the difficulties of students in writing by using chain card game, the methodology of this research in quantitative approach and using experimental research, the source of students at SMPN 5 Takengon especially in the eight grader (VII4 and VII5). The differences between the study about teaching writing by using chain card, the research conducted at SMPN 5 Takengon especially in the eight grader. But, this proposal will take at MAN 1 Lampahan, where this research will use Film (Finding Nemo) as a media in teaching. 2. Mainah, NPM: 06 0204 2489. The title ”Improving Students’ Writing By Using Class Environment”, the purpose of this research to know how to improve students writing by using class environment. The methodology was an action research method in quantitative approach. The instrument of data collection is writing test. The differences between this proposal are the technique used in writing, the research is using class environment but this proposal is will use Film animation (Finding Nemo). 3. Siti Rosyida, NIM: 07140051. Title of thesis “The Effect of Using Situational Pictures on Ability of Writing Descriptive Texts”(at Eleven Grade Students of SMA Muhammadiyah). The research discuss about take picture can be used as educational media because they have a lot of advantage, the writer take experimental class at eleven grade of student of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Gresik. The differences between this proposal are the research take picture to see the effect on ability writing of descriptive text but this thesis take Film animation to increase student ability in writing narrative text and take at Senior High School, MAN 1 Lampahan. CHAPTER II Literature Review a. Definition of Film A film is one of the visual aids that can be used in a writing class. It makes lessons more fun. It can also be used to create situation for writing classes more clearly, that the students have big enthusiasm in teaching learning process in writing class. Film is a series of images that are projected into a screen to create the illusion of motion. Furthermore, motion pictures are also called movies, film or cinema, are one of the most popular forms of entertainment, that have people to immerse themselves in an imaginary world for a short period of time. Motion pictures are recorded using specially designed cameras that capture the images on rolls of film. After being processed and printed, the film is run through a projector, which shines light through the film so that the images are sparked on a screen. Most movies have accompanying sound. The functions of film are to educate, entertain, enlighten and inspire the audiences, and in this case the writer tried to use film or movies in the teaching and learning process of narrative text writing. The writer thought that film can also be used as an alternative method in teaching narrative text writing, because the student will get a new experience in their class that is quite different from their daily experience in their class, and for the teacher a film can be used as an alternative method in teaching that is suitable with their classroom situation. b. Type of Film 1. Documentary Film A documentary film support to present factual information about the world outside the film. As a type of film, documentary present themselves as factually trustworthy. 2. Factional Film A factional film present imaginary being, place or event. Yet, If a film is fictional, that does not mean that is completely, unrelated actually. For one thing, not everything shown or implied by the fiction films needs to be imaginary, a typical fictional film. Stages is event ; they are designed, planned, rehearsed, filmed and refilmed. 3. Animated Film Animated film are distinguished from live action ones by the unusual kinds of work that are done at production stage. Animation film do not do continuously filming outdoor action in the real time, but they create a series of image by shooting one frame at a time. 4. Experimental or avant – grade film Some filmmakers set out to create films that challenge orthodox motion of what movies can show and how it can show it. c. Important of Writing Some importance feature of writing activities that are usually done by people are as follows : 1. Teachers write some important thing on the black board, or students may write some notes that are dictated by the teacher. 2. Lot of people who are going to apply for job in offices write application letters. Today, many companies ask applications to write their forms in English. An applicant must be fluent both in spoken and written English. d. Generic Structure of Narrative Text The generic structure of narrative are : 1. First is an orientation. The readers are introduced to the some minor characters. Some indication is generally given of where the action and when an action happen. 2. Secondly is complication. This is where the writer tell how the problem arises, sometime something unexpected events will happen. 3. Thirdly is resolution. It is an optional closure of event. The complication may be resolved for better or for worse, but it is rarely left completely unresolved. The writer can conclude that resolution is the end of a story. e. Teaching Writing Use Narrative Text Many students find writing to be the most difficult lesson since they have to write in English to procedure an English text. They have to write down what they think of in their mind and state in on a paper by using a correct procedure. To figure the problems out, the writer tries to use film of narrative text in teaching written cycle. Students can feel more relaxed in learning writing and it will be easier for them to produce a narrative text. CHAPTER III Methodology a. Research Design This proposal take a class-room action research (CAR). Action Research is a way doing research and trying to work to solve problems at the same time. This method is used by teachers, to analyze the problems in teaching and the results used to improve students’ knowledge. And take quantitative the writer easy to find the result with collecting data used number. In this research teachers to focus its attention on one component such as students, teachers alone, facilities/infrastructure classes, learning materials, classroom management, etc. Ranging from siple to more simple to more complex while limiting the issues to be studied to be more. Action research model which improve by Kemmis and Mc Taggart explain about fourth stage and The classroom action research procedure can be described as the following : Cycle I Cycle II (source : Kemmis, S.Q & Robin Mc : 1988) The step represent one cycle or rotation, its meaning hereafter step to- 4, then return to- 1 and so on, though in character different step to- 2 and to- 3 done concurrently if executor and observer different. 1. Planning Planning means the reflection of the action that has done. Planning explaining where of, why, when, where, by whom, and how the action conducted. Problem exist in this time is students ability in speaking. Since studying English language students feel difficult in speaking. Though if seen from colloquial very easy, but transferred to Language English their difficulty. Desire to improve the students ability in speaking through Action Research with Community Language Learning Method which there with keyword as early beginning speaking. Planning is followed up for identifying the text to find solution from problems, this research is intended to find out : 1. The students’ response during learning process 2. The students’ applying Community Language Learning Method of speaking. 3. The writer was conduct four cycles of research to know applying Community Language Learning Method of speaking. To know students’ ability in speaking. 2. Acting Action is process of doing things. It is implementation of planning. The research should be flexible and welcome to the situation changing in school. Action means the activities that was done. It was applying or implementation fill device in using action class. Matter which must be remembered at phase is meekly at what have been formulated in device, and must be done appropriately. Of course it can be done make modification, during do not alter principle, avoiding feeling anomaly. In action researcher was run phase attribute to plan. 3. Observating Observation is perception execution by observer. Frankly a few little less precisely if this perception is dissociated with action execution of because perception is dissociated with action execution of because perception ought to do when action is being done. Become both taking place at the same time. Is in this case doing “perception return” to what is going on when action take place. In this phase, the observation is done the writer observe the school situation and surrounding and what the strategy that used teacher in teaching and learning process especially in teaching English. At the same time done perception return this the researcher note little by little what is going on. 4. Reflecting Reflection means the activity to propose to return what have been happened. Reflex is more term of virtual precise imposed when execution have conduted action, late then deal with researcher that is taught student, to together discuss implementation of action device. Vital of important it is meaning if students insured by action give a piece of mind where of experienced, and also existence is possibility of suggestion it is completion. b.The source of data The writer will research at MAN 1 Lampahan and take at the first year. They consisted of 5 classes, each class of 24-25 students. In this research, the writer used some elements in supporting data: 1`.Population Population is all of subject in the research, in Encyclopedia of educational evaluation ;population is a set (or collection) all of elements prossessing one or more attributes. This proposal take population all of the first year at MAN 1 Lampahan, there are 5 classes. 2. Sample Sample is part of consist and characteristic of population. In this proposal the writer take two classes of five for sample, it will take from X1 and X2 where class X1 as experimental class which consist of 24 students and X2 as control class consist 23 sdtudents , the total number is 47 students. c.Tecnique of collecting data The technique of collecting data in this research as follows: 1. Observation Observation is use to get data. In this proposal used to identify the strategies used by teacher in teaching and learning writing process. This research will take observation with the students, teacher and headmaster of MAN 1 Lampahan. 2. Questionnaire Questionnaire was given to students to know kind of situation the students faced in learning English. The questions of the questionnaires are mainly about student’s problem on Writing and English Learning. Questionnaires are a number of written questions used to obtain information from respondents in terms of personal statements, or the things they know. 3. Test In collecting data the writer will use test. There are two kinds of test; a. pre-test Pre-test which given in order to know the students ability before applying the teaching learning process. b. post-test Post-test given to know students ability after explanation or learning process doing. 4. Teaching Teaching is bring some material about narrative text and watching the film in learning process. And the writer only doing in experimental class post-test. d. Instrument of collecting data The writer uses some information to collecting data: 1. Observation Sheet In this proposal observation contents with purpose of the writer with technique of this research. The writer presents in a paper with checklist how students respond in learning writing. 2. Observation Sheet In this research the writer will give some affective questions, in order to know how far students’ motivation in writing. 3. Test Sheet In test the writer will give some task about narrative text, in order to know how far student lesson about narrative text. f. Data Analysis After data collected, then the writer will choose the data and determine the students with the formulation “t-test”; t= Md / √∑X2d / N(N-1) Where : t = The Score Md = different of means pre-test and post-test ∑X2d = total quadrate deviation N = Subject of sample ( N-1 ) BIBLIOGRAPHY Andika Pratiwi, How To Write English Correctly.Laskar Aksara: Bekasi, 2010. Azhar Arsyad, Media Pembelajaran. Raja Grafindo Graha: Jakarta,1997. Burhan Bungin, Metodologi Penelitian Kuantitatif. Jakarta,2005. http//id.answer.yahoo.com/definition film/index/qid=200914.aau.Acces on March 10,2013 Mahsun, Methodologi Penelitian Bahasa. Raja Grafindo Persada: Jakarta, 2005. Penny Ur, A Course In Language Teaching. 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